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Cambodia continues to struggle with the impacts of the Pol Pot regime that had a devastating effect on the social and economic structure of the country. Cambodia belongs among the poorest countries in the region, ranking 138th in the Human Development Index.

The Czech Republic has had a long history of relations with Cambodia. Czech development assistance has mostly focused on the sectors of health, social care and education, targeting predominantly the Takeo province. Historically, the Czech Republic also supported the protection of cultural heritage in the Angkor area. 

Czech development projects in Cambodia have focused on vulnerable groups of the population, mostly in the Takeo province. These projects have sought to improve the quality of nutritional care of young children, strengthen community support of disabled children, or to improve the health of mother and children. As these projects are mostly aimed at the poorest inhabitants of rural communities, they contribute to the reduction of poverty and an improved standard of living in the region.